Solving Invariant Generation for Unsolvable Loops

ADaneshvar Amrollahi, Ezio Bartocci, George Kenison, Laura Kovacs, Marcel Moosbrugger, Miroslav Stankovic

Automatically generating invariants, key to computer-aided analysis of probabilistic and deterministic programs and compiler optimisation, is a challenging open problem. Whilst the problem is in general undecidable, the goal is settled for restricted classes of loops. For the class of solvable loops, introduced by Kapur and Rodriguez-Carbonell in 2004, one can automatically compute invariants from closed-form solutions of recurrence equations that model the loop behaviour. In this paper we establish a technique for invariant synthesis for loops that are not solvable, termed unsolvable loops. Our approach automatically partitions the program variables and identifies the so-called defective variables that characterise unsolvability. We further present a novel technique that automatically synthesises polynomials, in the defective variables, that admit closed-form solutions and thus lead to polynomial loop invariants. Our implementation and experiments demonstrate both the feasibility and applicability of our approach to both deterministic and probabilistic programs.